Who Lives Longer?
How to live longer is a topic that has fascinated
mankind for centuries. Today scientists are beginning
to separate the facts from the fallacies surrounding the
aging process. Why is it that some people reach a ripe
05 old age and others do not? Several factors influencing
longevity are set at birth, but surprisingly, many others
are elements that can be changed. Here is what you
Some researchers divide the elements determining
10 who will live longer into two categories: fixed factors
and changeable factors. Gender, race and heredity
are fixed factors – they can’t be reversed, although
certain long-term social changes can influence them.
For example, women live longer than men – at birth, their
15 life expectancy is seven to eight years more. However,
cigarette smoking, drinking and reckless driving could
shorten this advantage.
There is increasing evidence that length of life is also
influenced by a number of elements that are within our
20 ability to control. The most obvious are physical lifestyle
Cutting calories may be the single most significant
lifestyle change you can make. Experiments have shown
that in laboratory animals, a 40 percent calorie reduction
25 leads to a 50 percent extension in longevity. According to
experts, eating less has a more profound and diversified
effect on the aging process than does any other lifestyle
change. It is the only factor we know of in laboratory
animals that is an anti-aging factor.
30 A long life, however, is not just the result of being
good to your body and avoiding disease. All the various
factors that constitute and influence daily life can be
critical too. In searching for the ingredients to a long,
healthy existence, scientists are studying links between
35 longevity and the psychological and social aspects of
human existence. Several aspects can play significant
roles in determining your longevity.
Researchers have found that people who are socially
integrated – members of a family network, married, or
40 participants of structured group activities – live longer.
Early studies indicated that the more friends and
relatives you had, the longer you lived. Newer studies
focus on the types of relationships that are most
beneficial. According to these studies, larger networks
45 don’t always seem to be advantageous to women, since
certain kinds of ties add more demands rather than
generate more help.
A feeling of autonomy or control can come from having
a say in important decisions (where you live, how you
50 spend your money) or from being surrounded by people
who inspire confidence in your ability to master certain
tasks. Studies show these feelings bring a sense of
well-being and satisfaction with life.
Where you live can make a difference in how long
55 you live. A study by the California Department of Health
Services in Berkeley found a percent higher mortality
rate among people living in a poverty area compared
to those in a nonpoverty area. According to the study,
the difference was not due to age, sex, health care or
60 lifestyle. The resulting hypothesis was that a locale can
have socioeconomic characteristics, such as high crime
rate and level of stress, that make it unhealthy.
People with higher incomes, more education and
high-status occupations tend to live longer. Researchers used
65 to think this was due to better living and job conditions,
nutrition and access to health care, but these theories
have not held up.
The message from experts is clear. There are many
ways to add years to your life. Instituting sound health
70 practices and expanding your circle of acquaintances and
activities will have a beneficial effect. The good news
about aging is many of the factors related to longevity
are also related to life satisfaction.
SKALKA, P. Who lives longer? In: SMITH, L. C.; MARE, N. (Org.). Topics for today: an advanced reading skills text. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle, 1997, p. 70-73. (Adapted).
Questão 01. According to the text, it is CORRECT to say that:
A) evidence suggests that we cannot control the elements that make us live longer.
B) long-term social changes do not influence gender, race and heredity.
C) although women live longer, some bad habits may increase this advantage.
D) longevity can be influenced by fixed and changeable factors.
E) longevity is not influenced by elements we’re born with.
Questão 02. It is CORRECT to say that this sentence – “[…] the more friends and relatives you had, the longer you lived.” – is closest in meaning to:
A) People who had fewer friends and relatives added more years to life.
B) People who did not have any friends lived longer.
C) People who had many relatives but fewer friends lived longer.
D) People who had many friends and relatives added more years to life.
E) People who had many friends didn’t add years to life.
Questão 03 sobre Interrogative Adverbs: According to the text, it is CORRECT to say that:
A) cigarette smoking, drinking and reckless driving could never shorten men’s expectancy of living.
B) women live longer than men, in spite of cigarette smoking, drinking and reckless driving.
C) cigarette smoking, drinking and reckless driving could shorten women’s expectancy of living.
D) women live longer than men, no matter the lifestyle they have.
E) women and men have the same length of life expectancy, regardless of the lifestyle they have.
Questão 04. According to the text, it is CORRECT to say that:
A) cutting calories contributes to longevity.
B) cutting calories contributes to the aging process.
C) cutting calories is the only efficient anti-aging factor.
D) cutting calories does not contribute to longevity.
E) cutting calories is the least significant anti-aging factor.
Questão 05. According to the text, the following factors are not beneficial and can be harmful to living longer, EXCEPT:
A) living in a poverty area.
B) polluted air or water.
C) high crime rate.
D) high level of stress.
E) healthy environment.
Questão 06. The word which functions as a verb in the text is:
A) aging (line 4).
B) increasing (line 18).
C) driving (line 16).
D) avoiding (line 31).
E) feeling (line 48).
Questão 07. All of the following words function as nouns in the text, EXCEPT:
A) leads (line 25).
B) practices (line 70).
C) ties (line 46).
D) studies (line 41).
E) changes (line 13).
Questão 08 sobre Interrogative Adverbs: The sentence which is NOT an example of the present perfect simple is:
A) “[…] a topic that has fascinated mankind for centuries.”
B) “[…] eating less has a more profound and diversified effect […].”
C) “Experiments have shown that in laboratory animals […].”
D) “Researchers have found that people who are socially […].”
E) “[…] these theories have not held up.”
Questão 09. The word “shorten” (line 17) is closest in meaning to:
Questão 10 sobre Interrogative Adverbs: Match the words in column 1 to their referents in column 2:
1. others (line 6) ( ) women
2. who (line 38) ( ) locale
3. their (line 14) ( ) factors
4. it (line 62) ( ) types of relationships
5. that (line 43) ( ) people
The CORRECT sequence is:
A) 3, 1, 4, 2, 5.
B) 4, 3, 1, 2, 5.
C) 4, 1, 5, 2, 3.
D) 3, 4, 5, 1, 2.
E) 3, 4, 1, 5, 2.
Gabarito com as respostas da lista de questões de Inglês sobre Interrogative Adverbs:
Doutorando em Genética e Biologia Molecular – UESC-BA
Mestre em Genética e Biologia Molecular – UESC-BA
Pós-Graduado em Metodologia do Ensino de Biologia e Química – FAEL
Licenciado em Ciências Biologias – IFMT/Campus Juína